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The VAULT Study – Glenoid Version Measurement

Completed Research
The VAULT Study (Reliability of Glenoid Version Measurement on 3D-corrected axial CT scan)


Glenoid version measurement is critical in shoulder arthroplasty especially for the anatomic design in which the glenoid implant remains the weak link and where incorrect positioning leads to a high failure rate.1–3

Essential knowledge of the glenoid vault anatomy and version is crucial for long-term survivorship. Many preoperative radiological methods have been proposed to calculate glenoid version, mostly based on CT scan using simple axial slices, 3D-corrected slices or even direct 3D viewing of the glenoid.4–7 The most commonly used method is the traditional Friedman’s angle4 but several limitations have been shown, notably the fact that it is dependant on the shape of the scapula body 6,8 and that the medial border of the scapula must be included in the CT scan field, which is not often the case.6 Moreover, glenoid version does not necessarily correspond to the orientation of the glenoid vault, a conical structure of cancellous bone that is sought for maximum purchase of pegs, keels or screws when resurfacing the glenoid. Matsumura et al. have recently proposed a new method of evaluating glenoid version according to the medial tip of the glenoid vault (the vault method), which they has shown to be more reliable than Friedman’s angle.6

Glenoid version measurement is critical in shoulder arthroplasty.


The primary objective of this study is to determine the reliability of two commonly used radiologic methods of measuring glenoid version, according to slice height and angulation.


This is a retrospective review study including two groups: normal shoulders (“Normal” group), and patients with arthritic shoulders (“Arthritic” group).

Study Procedure

Patients with thoracic and shoulder CT scans involving the entire scapula will first be screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Identified patients will then be de-identified and added to an anonymous database, containing age, sex, and any relevant diagnosis concerning the shoulder. Glenoid version will then be measured by the three principal investigators at two different times, using OiriX (DICOM viewer software, Pixmeo, Geneva Switzerland) to reconstruct 3D-corrected axial slices. Measures will include two validated and widely used methods of glenoid version measurement in 7 different axial cut heights and inclination. Results will be reported in the database for further analysis, concerning 2 groups: arthritic and normal shoulders.

Inclusion Criteria

  • At least 2mm thick slices to be able to carry out 3D-corrected reconstruction
  • Normal or arthritic glenoid (primary or cuff tear arthropathy)
  • Patients over 16 years old

Exclusion Criteria

  • Post-traumatic arthritis
  • Fractures involving glenoid or scapula body
  • Any other conditions that may severely alter the shape of the scapula (dysplasia, charcot joint, etc.)

Ethics and Governance

Approved by Northern Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee to be undertaken at Royal North Shore Hospital. HREC reference LNR/16/HAWKE/37 and SSA reference LNRSSA/16/HAWKE/55.


Recruitment has begun. Early stage data collection. Results not expected until late 2016 or early 2017 – watch this space.


  • Farron, A., Terrier, A. & Büchler, P. Risks of loosening of a prosthetic glenoid implanted in retroversion. J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 15, 521–526 (2006).
  • Walch, G. et al. Results of a convex-back cemented keeled glenoid component in primary osteoarthritis: multicenter study with a follow-up greater than 5 years. J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 20, 385–394 (2011).
  • Yongpravat, C. et al. Glenoid implant orientation and cement failure in total shoulder arthroplasty: a finite element analysis. J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 22, 940–947 (2013).
  • Friedman, R. J., Hawthorne, K. B. & Genez, B. M. The use of computerized tomography in the measurement of glenoid version. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 74, 1032–1037 (1992).
  • Kwon, Y. W., Powell, K. A., Yum, J. K., Brems, J. J. & Iannotti, J. P. Use of three-dimensional computed tomography for the analysis of the glenoid anatomy. J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 14, 85–90 (2005).
  • Matsumura, N. et al. Computed tomography measurement of glenoid vault version as an alternative measuring method for glenoid version. J Orthop Surg Res 9, 17 (2014).
  • Poon, P. C. & Ting, F. S. H. A 2-dimensional glenoid vault method for measuring glenoid version on computed tomography. J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 21, 329–335 (2012).
  • Bryce, C. D. <article-title aid=‘1458783’>Two-Dimensional Glenoid Version Measurements Vary with Coronal and Sagittal Scapular Rotation</article-title> J. Bone Jt. Surg. Am. 92, 692 (2010).
  • Bokor, D. J., O’Sullivan, M. D. & Hazan, G. J. Variability of measurement of glenoid version on computed tomography scan. J. Shoulder Elb. Surg. Am. Shoulder Elb. Surg. Al 8, 595–598 (1999).


Lead Investigator:

Dr Greg Cunningham

SSRI 2015 Fellow


August 2015


August 2016


Cunningham G, Freebody J, Smith MM, Taha ME, Young AA, Cass B and Griuffre G. The greater tuberosity angle: a new predictor for rotator cuff tear. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2018 – Volume 27 –p 1809-1815


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{Updated October 2018}

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